Chromium, zinc, copper, lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic are among the most common metal contaminants found at remediation sites. Remotox® (a Calcium Polysulfide Solution) precipitates these highly soluble metals as less soluble, less toxic metal sulfides. In the case of chromium, the metal precipitates as chromium hydroxide. See Elements and their Potential In-Situ Precipitates.


Application Advantages:

  • Effective against a wide range of heavy metals, chlorinated compounds, and other contaminants. See some of the studies below.
  • Converts hexavalent and trivalent chromium to chromium hydroxide in a one-step reaction.
  • Proven to provide more stability in subsurface environments than other reductants, such as sodium dithionite.
  • It is a nontoxic reagent that oxidizes under aerobic conditions to form calcium, sulfate and elemental sulfur.
  • NSF (NSF International) approved for drinking water treatment.
  • May be applied to in-situ and ex-situ media.
  • Remotox is a strong, yet relatively inexpensive reducing agent.

Over the past 30 years, numerous Calcium Polysulfide applications have been successfully conducted at various remediation sites around the world. Calcium Polysulfide is also widely used in agricultural applications on fruit trees and berries, and as a soil amendment for treating saline and saline-sodic soils.


When introduced into the environment, Calcium Polysulfide dissociates to form bisulfide, aqueous hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur compounds. Heavy metal ions are precipitated as less soluble, less toxic metal sulfides by these breakdown products. Metal hydroxides change solubility with changes in pH. Metal sulfides remain insoluble within a wide pH range. See Solubility of Metal Hydroxides and Sulfides as a Function of pH. While effective treatment can be achieved over a wide pH range, best results are typically obtained within pH 7-10. Adjustments to pH of the treatment system can enhance the metal precipitation process. See Treatment of Soluble Metal Streams.

The US EPA has identified calcium polysulfide as a reagent suitable for use in in-situ chemical reduction (ISCR), stabilization and solidification of multiple contaminants. Several abstracts and studies are available through CLU-IN, the Hazardous Waste Clean-Up Information website, sponsored by the US EPA. See Summary of Studies on Cr(VI) Reduction by Calcium Polysulfide.


Bench scale evaluation and case studies on Calcium Polysulfide for the remediation of hexavalent chromium in Chromite Ore Processing Residue (COPR) can also be found in the Chromium (VI) Handbook. Purchasing information available at CRC Press Online or at Amazon.com.


For technical assistance, product sample or pricing information, please contact us at 623-328-5175 or by email at info@grauschemicals.com


Remotox® for Soil and Groundwater Remediation

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